Conjunctions in English

Conjunctions adalah  kata-kata yang menghubungkan kata dengan kata yang lain. 


Lutfi and Fitrie are friends. Kata sambung and menghubungkan dua kata benda, yaitu Lutfi dan Fitri dalam kalimat tersebut. Dan dalam kalimat He will stay or go,  kata sambung or menghubungkan dua kata kerja stay dan go. Perhatikan kalimat berikut:

He has a lot of money but he is stingy. Kata sambung but menghubungkan dua kelompok kata (kalimat) yaitu:  He has a lot of money dan he is stingy.
  • He went after he had taken a bath.
  • We continued working although we were sleepy.
  • I saw Fitri as I was crossing the street.
  • She gave the food to the poor because she thought it was a good thing to do.
  • He had phoned me before you came home.
  • You will fail unless you study hard.
  • I will be happy if you come.
  • Zak will wait until you call him.
  • I didn’t do it since I knew it was wrong.
  • Susan was having her lunch when you came.
  • There were more people there than I expected.
  • I saw you while I was working in the garden.
  • I will follow your instruction, provided that you agree to what I want.
both . . .and   (Both Lutfi and Mina will attend the seminar.)
either . . . or  (Either Susan or Mary will stay here to look after the baby.)
neither . . . nor  (Neither you nor I can solve the problem.)
not only . . . but also (We will go not only to Padang but also Medan.)
either . . . or  (Either Susan or Mary will stay here to look after the baby.)
neither . . . nor  (Neither you nor I can solve the problem.)
not only . . . but also (We will go not only to Padang but also Medan.)

Perlu diperhatikan bahwa unless tidak digunakan  dalam future tense Will atau Shall. Gunakan lah Unless dalam present tense atau present perfect.

Arti dari Unless adalah jika tidak atau kecuali kalau; sedangkan if artinya  kalau/jika atau seandainya.

Berikut adalah contoh kalimat bahasa inggris sederhana menggunakan if dan unless:
  • She will never phone you unless you call her first.[Dia tidak akan pernah menelpon mu kecuali kalau Anda menelpon nya terlebih dahulu.]
  • Please visit me if you have time. [Kunjungilah saya jika kamu punya waktu.]
  • Unless you stop playing the music loudly, I will go back home now.[Jika Anda tidak berhenti menyetel music dengan keras, saya akan pulang sekarang.]
  • Let’s resume our exercise – unless you are already exhausted.[Mari kita lanjutkan latihan kita – kecuali kalau kalian sudah lelah.]
  • Honestly, I won’t join the group unless John is the admin of the group.[Jujur saja, saya tidak akan gabung grup ini kecuali kalau John sebagai admin grup ini.]
  • If you don’t like me being here, I will just leave.[Jika Anda tidak suka saya ada di sini, saya akan pergi.]
  • She will resign unless her salary is raised. [Dia akan mengundurkan diri kecuali kalau gajinya dinaikkan.]
Percakapan berikut tentang penggunaan if dan unless. Latihlah percakapan berikut:

ANDY: I’d rather you came along with us tomorrow morning.[Saya lebih suka Anda ikut dengan saya besok pagi.]
JOHN: I am sorry I can’t make it unless you provide everything for me.[Maaf, saya tidak bisa, kecuali jika Anda menyediakan segalanya untuk saya.]
MARY: Unless you pay the rent for a period of 2 months in advance, I will allow you to occupy this house.[Kecuali jika Anda membayar sewa untuk 2 bulan di muka, saya akan izinkan Anda untuk menempati rumah ini.]
KELVIN: What if I pay for one month first, then I  will pay the rest after two week?.[Bagaimana kalau saya bayar untuk 1 bulan dulu, nanti saya akan bayar sisanya setelah 2 minggu?]
APRI: You cannot stay here unless you have already paid the rent.[Anda tidak bisa tinggal di sini kecuali kalau Anda telah membayar sewanya.]
YANTO: Please help me. I am still hard up at the moment. [Tolong lah. Saya sedang tidak punya uang saat ini.]

Despite, Although atau Though sama-sama berarti “Walaupun, kendatipun. Namun Despite dan Although dua kata yang berbeda fungsi fungsi. Despite adalah preposition (kata depan) sedangkan Although atau Though adalah conjunction (kata sambung). Dalam fungsinya dalam kalimat tidak bisa saling menggantikan preposition selalu diikuti oleh kata benda atau bentuk Ing kata kerja, sedangkan conjunction diikuti oleh klausa (anak kalimat) atau reduced clauses atau Ing clause. Perhatikan contoh kalimat berikut:

Yanto kept walking despite the rain [Yanto terus berjalan walaupun hujan.]

Pada kalimat pertama, kata despite digunakan karena diikuti oleh kata benda (the rain); sedangkan pada kalimat kedua kata although digunakan karena diikuti oleh anak kalimat (subordinate clause).

Contoh lagi:
Despite having a bad teacher, Apri succeeded in passing the test.

Perhatikan contoh penggunaan Although yang diikuti oleh reduced clause (anak kalimat yang disingkat):
Ferdy, although very tired, still continued his work until midnight. [Ferdi, walaupun ia sangat lelah, masih terus berkerja sampai tengah malam.]   very tired adalah reduced clause yang dimulai dengan kata although.
Syarat bisa digunakan reduced clause apabila subjek yang dihilangkan (reduced) menjelaskan subjek kalimat nya.

Although much cheaper, this type of car does not sell well. [Walaupun jauh lebih murah, jenis mobil ini tidak laris.] Although much cheaper menjelaskan subjek kalimat (this type of car).
Untuk dapat memahami lebih mantap lagi, lengkapilah kalimat berikut. Isi dengan Although / Though atau dengan Despite:
  • She was busy yesterday ……………………. she didn’t have time to phone you. [so, because, as]
  • You should have your driving license renewed as soon as possible ………….have a problem when a police stops you in the street. [or, nor, but]
  • ………………the road condition is not safe and dangerous, few motorists are using the      road. [as, since, keduanya bisa digunakan]
  • I have never smoked in my life; …………………….do I want to try one. [neither, nor, keduanya bisa digunakan]
  • Joko and Silvi are very tired ………………..they have been walking for 3 hours.[so, therefore, because]
  • Ani not only treated us a treat in an expensive restaurant ………………….took us home in her new car. [but, also, but also]
  • Tired …………………he was, he kept on climbing up the hill. [as, though, keduanya bisa dipakai]
  • Idul Fitri Day is one of National Holidays in Indonesia ………….all Moslems  forgive and visit one another. [if, when, that]
  • Can you pick us up at the airport………….you have time? [where, because, if]
  • ……………in poor health, Joko has to earn a living for his family. [ when, but, although]
  • Chandra: I wish I could travel abroad next year. What about you? If you had a lot of money, would you spend a holiday abroad? Which country would you visit?
  • Marita: No, I wouldn’t. I think I would buy two more houses and have my present house repaired. I really hope that I will have a lot of money someday.
  • Chandra: I hope your dream will come true. By the way, it rained very hard last night. Although it rained, we decided to hang around at the shopping center. I am bored staying at home when it rains.
  • Marita: I love being alone. Even if I have a lot of money, I will not go anywhere.
  • Chandra: So, you never go shopping?
  • Marita: That’s another story. I always go shopping. Just for shopping. Last week my aunt visited me. Although she was staying with me for a couple of days, we didn’t go out at all. My aunt and I both love staying at home.
Perhatikan kata-kata sambung berikut dan pemakaiannya dalam kalimat. Kata-kata sambung ini dinamakan coordinating conjunctions.

for,and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
They ran and played. (Mereka lari dan bermain)
 She will arrive on Sunday or Monday (Dia akan datang hari Minggu atau Senin)
Zak is small but strong. (Zak kecil tapi kuat)
Fitri was hungry so she ate the food up. (Fitri lapar sehingga ia menghabiskan makan itu.)
He must have finished the work on time, for he is very diligent.
He is handsome, yet he has few girlfriends.
 I wanna go abroad next year, so I have to save money from now on.

Bagaimana Menggunakan Though, Although, Even if, etc.

Though, although, even if, even though, in spite of, despite (Walaupun, kendatipun, meskipun)
Bagaimana penggunaan kata  Though, although, even if, even though, in spite of, despite yang artinya walaupun, kendatipun, meskipun dan kalimat bahasa Inggris dan yang mana yang sering digunakan dalam percakapan sehari-hari dan yang mana yang sering dijumpai dalam tulisan formal. Berikut penjelasan yang diambil dari beberapa sumber.

Though lebih sering digunakan dalam percakapan daripada although. Even though digunakan apabila ingin lebih menegaskan. Even if digunakan untuk kondisi yang akan datang sedangkan though atau although untuk saat sekarang atau lampau.

Perhatikan contoh dalam kalimat-kalimat berikut:

  • He still feels thirsty though he drank a lot of water. [Ia masih merasa haus walaupun ia sudah banyak minum.]
  • She said she wanted to go to the beach even if the weather is not good.
  • Although I had explained to him my reason, the boss didn’t want to allow me to go home. [Kendatipun saya sudah jelaskan kepadanya alas an saya, boss tidak ingin mengizinkan saya pulang.]
Perhatikan jika anak kalimat didahulukan, kita menggunakan koma sebelum induk kalimatnya.
  • I decided to go out even though it rained hard. [Saya memutuskan untuk pergi keluar walaupun hujan deras.]
  • Even if she hates me, I still love her. [Walaupun ia membenci saya, saya tetap mencintainya.]
  • Though dan although bisa juga menggunakan ING form, khususnya dalam situasi formal:
  • Yanto, although becoming weaker, still wants to join a car racing competition.[John P.Brenan, walaupun semakin lemah, masih ingin ikut kompetisi balap mobil.]
  • The fruit sellers, although having lots of customers, still do not make expected profit. [Para penjual buah, walaupun banyak memiliki pelanggan, masih belum mendapatkan untung yang diharapkan.]

Perhatikan penggunaan in spite of dan despite
  • Lutfi didn’t pass the exam despite his hard work
  • Lutfi didn’t pass the exam in spite of his hard work
  • Despite hard rain, we all went home without umbrellas.
  • We didn’t succeed in selling our house despite the fact that we had put an ad in the newspaper for a month.
  • Despite studying all night, he didn’t pass the test.
  • No one was late for work despite being delayed in the long traffic jam.

Because atau Because of

Kita semua tahu bahwa because dan because of artinya “karena”. Contoh: Karena saya mengantuk, saya tertidur di mushola. Karena hujan lebat, kami semua berhenti sampai hujan reda, dan contoh-contoh lainnya.

Nah dalam bahasa Inggris because dan because of bisa kita gunakan. Bagaimana menggunakan because dan because of, perhatikan penjelasan berikut:

Gunakan Because apabila kata because diikuti oleh klausa, bukan oleh kata. Sedangkan because of digunakan apabila ia diikuti oleh kata benda , noun phrase, dan kata ganti.
Contoh-contoh berikut akan memperjelas bagaimana menggunakan because dan because of. 
Kata yang mengikuti because dan because of digaris bawahi agar Anda jelas mengapa because atau because of yang digunakan.
  • I didn’t attend the meeting because I was not invited[Saya tidak menghadiri rapat karena saya tidak diundang.]
  • Because of the rain, the football game was called off.[karena hujan, pertandingan sepak bola dibatalkan.]
  • Because she had no money, she only stayed at home. [Karena ia tidak punya uang, ia hanya tinggal di rumah.]
  • Because of heavy traffic jam, we arrived at our office late.[Karena macet parah, kami terlambat tiba di kantor kami.]
  • I didn’t come to her home last night because I knew she didn’t expect me to come.[Saya tidak datang ke rumahnya karena saya tahu dia tidak mengharapkan saya datang.]
  • A bomb exploded on the bridge. Consequently many people are now afraid to pass through the bridge because of it[ Sebuah bom meledak di atas jembatan. Akibatnya banyak orang sekarang takut melewati jembatan itu karenanya.]
  • Because of the issue getting more serious, the principal of PT. OWE decided to hold a meeting attended by all employees. [Karena masalah menjadi semakin serius, pemilik PT. OWE memutuskan mengadakan rapat yang dihadiri oleh semua karyawan.]
  • Because Jane was very tired, she turned in early last night. [Karena dia sangat lelah, ia tidur lebih awal semalam.]
Agar lancar dalam menulis atau bercakap-cakap dalam bahasa Inggris, cobalah berlatih membuat kalimat menggunakan because dan because of seperti kalimat-kalimat di atas.

Selamat belajar..