Adjective Clauses For Spoken English

Sebelum kita membahas Adjective Clauses for spoken English, mari kita mulai dahulu dengan pembahasan Adjective Clause.

Adjective Clause adalah kalimat yang menggunakan kata  who, which, that, whom, whose dimana kata-kata tersebut diterjemahkan sebagai "yang" dalam bahasa Indonesia. Misal: Dia orang yang saya cintai (He's the man whom I love atau He's the man that I loveThe man who lives here = Laki-laki yang tinggal di sini....)

Adjective Clause terdiri dari dua clausesMain Clause dan Subordinate Clause (Induk kalimat dan anak kalimat). Kata-kata who, which, that, whom dan whose digunakan untuk menggantikan subjek anak kalimat dan objek anak kalimat. Who, that, which digunakan untuk menggantikan subjek anak kalimat; sedangkan whomthat, dan which mengganti objek anak kalimat.

Perhatikan dua kalimat ini:
  • The man is my father. He teaches you English. Adjective clause nya: The man who teaches you English is my father. Who menggantikan He yang berfungsi sebagai subjek.
  • The woman is my secretary. You met her yesterday.  Adjective clause nya: The woman whom you met is my secretary. Whom menggantikan her (dalam You met her yesterday)

Perhatikan contoh-contoh dan penjelasan di bawah ini:

1.   This is the man who stole my money. (Ini orang yang mencuri uang saya). Sebenarnya kalimat ini berasal dari 2(dua) kalimat, yaitu: This is the man. He stole my money. Kata He diganti dengan who. Makanya who dalam contoh ini berfungsi sebagai subjek atau pokok kalimat dari "stole my money".

2.     The man that I told you about has moved to Bali (Laki-laki yang saya ceritakan telah pindah ke Bali). Di sini that (yang) sebagai objek.

Sekarang perhatikan adjective clauses di atas saya pecah menjadi dua kalimat:
  • This is the man. He stole my money (The man dalam kalimat ke 2 sebagai subjek). This is the man who stole my money. (perhatikan He dihilangkan diganti dengan who)
  • The man has moved to Bali. I told you about him (The man dalam kalimat ke 2 sebagai obyek). The man that I told you about has moved to Bali(him saya hilangkan diganti dengan that)
Berarti adjective clause adalah dependent clause yang berfungsi sebagai kata sifat yang memberikan penjelasan kepada kata benda yang mendahului nya. Perhatikan contoh-contoh di bawah ini.

Contoh lagi. clause yang berhuruf tebal adalah dependent clause (adjective clause dalam hal ini):
  • The woman who lives next door is a math teacher.
  • This is the house that I plan to sell.
  • Do you know the doctor who helped my son last night?
  • You need a good man who can take care of your house.
Kita menggunakan that, whichdan whom apabila adjective clause sebagai objek yang dalam percakapan sering tidak digunakan. 
Contoh :
  • This is the boy whom I met yesterday. This is the boy I met yesterday.
  • These cars, which I mentioned yesterday, belong to Mr. Lutfi. These cars, I mentioned yesterday, belong to Mr. Lutfi.
Latihan:
Gabung lah dua kalimat menjadi satu kalimat dengan menggunakan who, that, which, whom, whose.

1.     The man is waiting outside. He is holding a baby.
2.     I met a beautiful girl. She lives in Jakarta
3.     This is the man. Lutfi told you about him.
4.     The boy is mischievous. He is Mr. Dony's son.
5.     This is Lutfi. I borrowed his book last week.
6.     Is she the woman? You borrowed her car last week.
7.     I went to the restaurant. We had lunch at the restaurant.
8.     Have you heard about the girl? You were crazy about her last year.


Isilah titik-titik dengan who, that, which, whom, whose:


Do you remember Mr. Lutfi............car you borrowed last month? He is now applying for a job..........suits his ability as a photographer. I know Mr. Lutfi is a diligent and hard-working man ............all of his friends know as a workaholic.

Menggunakan Ing Form kata kerja dan Past Participle

Bagaimana pemahaman Anda tentang Adjective Clauses?  Sekarang marilah kita membahas Adjective Clauses dengan menghilangkan who, that, which dan menggantikan nya dengan ING form dan Past Participle. Coba perhatikan kalimat-kalimat berikut:

  • This is the man who lives in Jakarta.
  • The book that was sent to you is very expensive.
  • The young woman who is traveling to Bali will visit you next month.
  • The car that is being repaired belongs to Mr. Lutfi.
Kedua kalimat di atas dapat diganti dengan menggunakan ING form kata kerja dan past participle:
  • This is the man living in Jakarta.
  • The book sent to you is very expensive.
  • The young woman traveling to Bali will visit you next month.
  • The car that  being repaired belongs to Mr. Lutfi.
Perhatikan perubahan di atas:

who lives digantikan dengan living
that was sent diganti dengan sent.
who is traveling diganti dengan traveling.
that is being repaired diganti dengan being repaired.

Latihan:
Rubahlah adjective clauses berikut seperti contoh di atas.
  • This is the man who works in my garden.
  • The children who are playing outside live in this housing complex.
  • The computer that is being used by Fitri is an expensive one.
  • Do you still remember the students who were visiting you last week?
  • She doesn't want to eat cakes that are not made by her mother.
  • The foods that are being ordered will be paid for by Mr. Adi.

Menggunakan To Infinitive

Adjective Clause adalah sebuah kalimat yang terdiri dari induk kalimat dan anak kalimat dengan menggunakan who, whom, that, which, whose tergantung dari fungsi kata-kata tersebut dalam kalimat.
  • The man who came to see you yesterday has gone to Bali. Who adalah subject dari anak kalimat "came to see you yesterday".  Seandainya "who came to see you yesterday" dihilangkan, maka kalimat "The man has gone to Bali" kurang begitu jelas tentang "the man" yang mana. Oleh karena itu "who came to see you yesterday" digunakan untuk memberikan penjelasan tentang the man yang dimaksud. 
Dalam hal-hal tertentu To Infinitive dapat menggantikan kata whom, that, dan which.

CONTOH:
  • This is the book that we can read here. dapat digantikan dengan This is the book to read.
  • I cannot find a man whom I can rely on dapat diganti dengan I cannot find a man to rely on.
  • Mr. Smith is the man you must see. Mr Smith is the man to see.
Perhatikan contoh-contoh Relative Clauses yang menggunakan To Infinitive:
  1. Do you have anyone to contact?
  2. I have no books to read at home.
  3. So far, we've had nothing to eat. What else can we do?
  4. There are no foods to eat here.
  5. I have no match to light a candle.
  6. Do you need anyone to help you here?
  7. Make sure you have someone to protect you.
  8. There are still too many poor people to be helped by us.
  9. She needs someone to talk to.
  10. Can I have a companion to do the jogging with?
Perhatikan jika kata kerja sering diikuti oleh preposition, maka preposition tersebut tetap disertakan.

Tidak semua relative clauses dapat digantikan dengan to infinitive.Beberapa contoh relative clauses yang tidak bisa digantikan dengan to infinitive:

  • This is the woman who helped me.
  • The man you talked to is my best friend.
  • The girl you walked with yesterday lives next to me.

Adjective Clauses For Spoken English

Seperti kita ketahui, adjective clauses menggunakan kata who, which, that dan whom.

  • This is the man whom I met at the train station.
  • This is the book which she bought in London.
  • The house that I used to live in looks very old.
Dalam bahasa percakapan, kata who, which, dan whom tidak digunakan. Perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat dalam adjective clauses yang digunakan dalam percakapan.
  • This is the man I met at the train station.
  • This is the book she bought in London.
  • The house I used to live in looks very old.
Perhatikan kalimat-kalimat berikut yang sangat formal dan sering ditemui dalam dokumen-dokumen resmi.
  • The woman with whom you visited Borobudur is older than I am.
  • The city in which my sister is very interested is very beautiful.
Kalimat-kalimat tadi dalam percakapan bisa berubah menjadi:
  • The woman you visited Borobudur with is older than me.
  • The city my sister is very interested in is very beautiful.
Perhatikan preposition dalam percakapan dipindahkan ke belakang.

Contoh-contoh adjective clauses dalam percakapan. Perhatikan posisi preposition nya dalam kalimat.
  • The film you told me about is not interesting to me.
  • How's the woman you plan to visit?
  • The car she went out in last night is very expensive.
  • India is the country we really look forward to visiting.
  • I don't know anything about the places you wrote about.
Adjective clauses dalam percakapan pada intinya mengabaikan penggunaan Whom, that, which. Namun perlu Anda ingat bahwa whom, that, which penting digunakan dalam written English, khususnya dalam bahasa Inggris formal.

Terjemah kan lah kalimat-kalimat berikut ke dalam bahasa Inggris. Gunakan Adjective Clauses seperti contoh-contoh di atas.
  1. Inilah Gadis yang Lutfi perkenalkan kepada saya kemarin. Ia seorang mahasiswi di salah satu perguruan swasta di Jakarta.
  2. Rumah yang Anda lihat kemarin ternyata telah terjual.
  3. Buku yang kamu pinjam itu kapan akan kamu kembalikan?
  4. Olahraga yang sangat saya gemari adalah olah raga berenang.
  5. Wanita yang Lutfi pernah jatuh cinta telah menikah.
  6. Saya ada info yang saya dapat share dengan Anda semua.