Fragments: Sentence Mistakes In English

Kesalahan lain dalam pembuatan kalimat adalah apa yang disebut "fragments" di mana kesalahan ini terjadi karena tidak lengkapnya informasi yang ada dalam kalimat tersebut. Misalnya kalimatnya tidak ada subjek, atau kata kerjanya tanpa obyek padahal ia kata kerja transitif.

 Perhatikan contoh-contoh berikut:

Since she got married. (Kalimat ini tidak lengkap karena "since she got married, lantas apa yang terjadi?)
Because I wanted to know it. (Juga tidak lengkap. Karena ingin tau, lantas apa yang saya lakukan?)
She met. (meet adalah kata kerja transitif di sini. Maka diperlukan obyek)

Sentence fragments biasanya diawali dengan kata kata berikut. Jika diawali kata-kata ini berarti harus ada penjelasan tambahan. Jika tidak ada penjelasan berarti termasuk sentence fragments.


  • As if (seolah olah)
  • Because
  • After (Setelah)
  • Although (walaupun)
  • Even though (Sekalipun)
  • Whereas (padahal)
  • When (ketika)
  • By the time (pada waktu)
  • Whether or not (apakah....atau tidak)
  • Since (sejak)
  • in case (kalau kalau)
  • only if
  • now that (karena)
dan masih banyak lagi. Intinya kata-kata di atas yang mengawali kalimat, tidak akan lengkap kalimatnya jika tidak ada penjelasan tambahan:

  1. As soon as I have arrived. (Sentence fragment). Harus ada kalimat lain untuk menjelaskannya: As soon as I have arrived, I will contact you.
  2. When she came here last year. (sentence fragment). Harus dilengkapi agar tidak sentence fragment: When she came here last year, she was still very beautiful.
  3. Even though Fitri doesn't want to see you. (sentence fragment). Berikan penjelasan agar lengkap: Even though Fitri doesn't want to see you, it doesn't mean that she hates you.
  4. Whereas I am rich. (sentence fragment). Harus dilengkapi seperti berikut: I don't want to have a car  whereas I am rich. Atau Whereas I am rich, I don't want to buy a car.
  5. Fitri went into her room. (sentence fragment). Kalimatnya harus lengkap: Fitri went into her room after she had arrived from her office.
  6. In case you fall ill (sentence fragment). Harus diberi penjelasan tambahan agar tidak fragment: In case you fall ill, bring this medicine with you.

Prepositions juga bisa menyebabkan sentence fragments jika tidak dilengkapi dengan kalimat tambahan seperti contoh-contoh di atas.

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Choppy: A Sentence Problem To Avoid

Choppy—A sentence problem

Kalimat-kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris yang terlalu pendek terasa amat janggal untuk suatu tulisan ilmiah atau text. Misalnya pengulangan kata ganti yang sama dalam kalimat-kalimat pendek harus dihindari dengan menggabungkan kalimat-kalimat tersebut menjadi 1 kalimat lengkap.

Contoh: She wakes up.  She brushes her teeth. She performs a prayer. Kalimat-kalimat ini sebenarnya dapat dihindari dengan menggabungkan ketiga kalimat tersebut menjadi 1 kalimat.
She wakes up, brushes her teeth, and then performs a prayer.

Contoh lain a choppy sentence:
Lutfi has finished eating. He has drunk his cup of coffee. Dua kalimat pendek ini bisa dijadikan satu kalimat. Setelah dijadikan satu, maka kalimatnya menjadi: Lutfi has finished eating and drunk his cup of coffee.

She had prepared breakfast for her husband. Fitri  went to the market. She bought vegetables and fruits for lunch. Ketiga kalimat ini pun bisa dijadikan satu kalimat.
Perhatikan:  After She had prepared breakfast for her husband, she went to the market to buy vegetables and fruits for lunch. Atau After She had prepared breakfast for her husband, she went to the market and bought vegetables and fruits for lunch.

Sempurnakan choppy sentences di bawah ini dengan cara menggabungkannya:
1.      Peter wanted to be a musician. He wanted to be happy. He wanted to be rich.
2.      I don’t like mangos. I don’t like pineapples, and I don’t like durians.
3.      There is a radio. There is a chair. There is a television.
4.      I have seen a book. I like the book.
5.      A boy is playing. He is laughing. He is wearing a hat.