Jenis-Jenis Kalimat Dalam Bahasa Inggris

Kalimat Sederhana (Simple Sentence)
Kalimat Sederhana terdiri dari satu pokok kalimat dan satu kata kerja utama.
Perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat sederhana di bawah ini:


  • John met Mary at the station.
  • I eat breakfast every day.
  • My children can swim well.
  • What time do you have lunch?
  • I don’t drink coffee.
  • We go to the beach every weekend.

Kalimat Sederhana versus Kalimat Komplek
Seperti kita ketahui kalimat kompleks sebenarnya terdiri dari 2 kalimat sederhana (Simple Sentence) yang satu sebagai dependent clause dan yang satu lagi sebagai independent clause (umumnya terdiri dari Induk Kalimat dan anak kalimat). Kedua kalimat tersebut dihubungkan oleh after, although, as, because, before, even though, if, since, though, unless, until, when, whenever, whereas, whereever, while.
Sedangkan kalimat sederhana (Simple Sentence) hanya terdiri dari satu independent clause (kalimat induk) saja.

INGAT!!! Dalam Complex Sentences:

Dependent clause bisa terletak di awal (sebelum independent clause) atau setelah independent clause. JIKA dependent clause diletakkan sebelum independent clause, maka KOMA harus dipakai untuk memisahkan kedua klausa tersebut.

 Berikut saya berikan contoh-contoh kalimat berikut:

  • After the explosion, many people decided to move to a safe place. (Kalimat Sederhana)

  • When the explosion was over, many people decided to move to a safe place. (Complex sentence)

  • Many people decided to move to a safe place when the explosion was over. (Complex sentence)

  • During my stay in London, I had the opportunity to visit many places. (Kalimat Sederhana)

  • When I was staying in London, I had the opportunity to visit many places. (Complex sentence)

  • Despite heavy rain, the project manager ordered him to go out. (Kalimat Sederhana)

  • Although it was raining hard, the project manager ordered him to go out. (Complex sentence)

  • On arriving at home, I quickly had my dinner. (Kalimat Sederhana)
  • After I had arrived at home, I quickly had my dinner. (Complex sentence)
  • In spite of his serious problem, he tried to remain happy. (Kalimat Sederhana)
  • Although he has a serious problem, he tried to remain happy. (Complex sentence)
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Kalimat Majemuk (Compound sentence)  adalah merupakan gabungan dua kalimat sederhana atau dua klausa utama atau lebih. Compound sentences terdiri dari Kalimat Majemuk Sederhana (Simple Compound) dan Kalimat Majemuk Kompleks  (Complex Compound).

  Contoh:
  1.  The rain fell, and the wind blew.
  2. Shinta likes to cook, but Fitri loves singing.
  3. We played volley ball, and then we went swimming.
  4. Mrs. Lutfi is a house wife, but Mrs. Edison is a career woman.
Dalam kalimat majemuk setara tersebut di atas masing-masing independent clause mempunyai subjek dan predikat sendiri. (The rain fell. The wind blew). Masing-masing subjek punya kata kerja masing-masing dan setara (sama-sama berada di main clause).

Perhatikan kata-kata sambung yang dipakai untuk menghubungkan dua independent clause sehingga menjadi kalimat majemuk setara.

Contoh:
  1. The door opened, and a cat suddenly entered the room .(dan)
  2. The restaurant is a very dirty, yet many people still want to eat there.(namun)
  3. I heard the conversation very clearly, for I was not far from them.(karena)
  4. You must study hard, or you will flunk in your exams.(atau)
  5. I want to live far away from the city, but my girl friend wants me to stay close to her.(tapi)
  6. Fitri was very tired, so she went to bed earlier.(jadi)
Perhatikan kita menggunakan tanda "," (koma) sebelum kata-kata sambung tersebut karena kedua kalimat tersebut setara. Kata sambung lain ya yang dapat digunakan, yaitu:

Also
Juga
Besides
Disamping itu
Moreover
Lagi pula, tambahan pula
Still
Namun
Therefore
Oleh karenanya
Consequently
Akibatnya
Otherwise
Jika tidak
Accordingly
Karenanya
However
Namun demikian
Nevertheless
Meskipun demikian
Then
Furthermore
Lebih lagi
On the other hand
Di lain pihak
       
Apabila kita menggunakan kata-kata di atas, maka tanda titik koma (;) sebelum transisi tersebut dan tanda koma (,) setelah nya. Perhatikan contoh kalimatnya:

  1. Mr. Lutfi is the richest man in Samarinda; moreover, he is very generous.
  2. Our team tried the best to win; nevertheless, they finally lost the game.
  3. This method is very good; accordingly, you must use it.
  4. He has been absent very frequently; therefore, the teacher decided to disqualify them for a test.
Parallel Structure
Sering dijumpai dalam tulisan-tulisan baik formal maupun informal. Intinya kalimat dengan parallel structure ini berasal dari beberapa kalimat yang mempunyai subjek atau pokok kalimat yang sama. Coba perhatikan contoh berikut:
  • Mary opened the door.
  • Mary greeted her friends.
Jika kedua kalimat tersebut digabung dengan menggunakan "and" maka kalimat-kalimat tadi akan menjadi:
  • Mary opened the door and greeted her friends. Mudah bukan?     Kata-kata yang di-parallel-kan harus satu jenis kata. Kata benda dengan kata benda; kata kerja dengan kata kerja; adverb dengan adverb.

    Contoh lain:
    • Fitri is generous, and trustworthy. (adjective and adjective)
    •  I got a pocket calculator and a hand phone for my birthday. (Noun and Noun)
    • Lutfi will fly to Jakarta and stay at Central Hotel. (Verb and Verb)
    • The boss spoke angrily and bitterly about you. (Adverb and Adverb)

    Untuk memdahkan pemahaman sebaiknya Anda coba latihan singkat berikut:

    Pilih jawaban yang benar:
    1. The little girl .................... cries if she is hungry. A. screams and  B. scream but    C. scream or  D. scream and
    2. Fitri is beautiful and ...............................  A. smiles    B. kind-hearted    C. politeness   D. working

    Salah satu kata atau frasa yang digaris bawahi adalah salah. Identifikasikan kata yang salah tersebut:

    1. Meteorologists have been using computers or satellite to help make weather forecast for more than one decade.
    2. The cowboy turns and rode towards the sun.

Dependent Sentences

Dependent sentences atau subordinate clauses adalah kalimat-kalimat yang tidak bisa berdiri sendiri dan dari nya pula tidak bisa dirubah menjadi kalimat tanyak atau negatif. Jadi kalimat-kalimat tersebut bersifat statis karena keberadaanya tergantung pada kalimat induknya (main clause).

Perhatikan  dependent sentences berikut:
When I was sitting.[Ketika saya sedang duduk.]
If you like it. [Jika kamu suka.]
Although she doesn't love me. [Walaupun ia tidak mencintaiku]

Ketiga kalimat tersebut harus dilengkapi dengan kalimat lain yang bersifat independent seperti contoh-contoh berikut:

When I was sitting, I saw Mary get off the bus. [Ketika saya sedang duduk, saya melihat Mary turun dari bus.]
I saw Mary get off the bus” adalah independent clause atau induk kalimat. Karena kalimatnya sekarang sudah lengkap maka, kalimat tersebut sudah bisa kita rubah menjadi kalimat Tanya, misalnya, sebagai berikut: “Did you see Mary get off the bus when you were sitting?” Sedangkan dependent sentence tidak akan berubah bentuk.

Untuk memperkuat pengetahuan kita mengenai dependent sentences, rubahlah kalimat-kalimat berikut menjadi kalimat Tanya. Ingat Dependent sentences tidak akan berubah bentuk sama sekali sekalipun kalimat nya dirubah menjadi kalimat Tanya atau kalimat negative.

We visited many places when we were having a holiday in Central Java.
Although it costs a lot of money to go to London, Yanto still wants to go there.
After I had visited Bali, we continued our trip to East Java to see Majapahit remains.
A lot of weekenders will not change their holiday destinations although they know that roads to Bandung are always congested on weekends.


Jawabannya:

Did we visit many places when we were having a holiday in Central Java?
Does Yanto still want to go to London although it costs a lot of money to go there?
After I had visited Bali, did we continue our trip to East Java to see Majapahit remains?
Will many weekenders not change their holiday destinations although they know that roads to Bandung are always congested on weekends?